The National Historical Museum of Ukraine is a leading museum, which has been located on Starokievskі Hill since 1944. The museum contains ethnographic, archaeological models of painting and sculpture, as well as collections, printed books, and other historical exhibits.
History of the museum
The building of the museum was built in 1939, the architect of the project is Iosif Karakis. At first, the museum was created as an art school, which was to become the first in the Ukrainian republic. In the initial version of the project, it was planned to create an art school on Lenin Street, but later the city executive committee decided that it would be better to create a building on Starokievskі Hill near the ruins of the Desyatynna Church. However, at that time there was a conservation area on this site and therefore I. Karakis tried in every possible way to dissuade the leadership from building a structure here.
The then government intimidated the architect, and he was forced to build a school at the specified location. However, these are not the only difficulties that befell the architect. The school's project included 14 sculptures on the top of the building, where it was planned to install a bas-relief from antique figures. Later, the bas-relief was changed with the coat of arms of the Soviet Union. In 1944, instead of an art school, the Historical Museum of the Ukrainian USSR was created. In October 1991, after gaining independence, the museum was renamed National. However, the people call it a historical museum.
Expositions, monuments of history and culture
At the moment, the museum fund has about 800,000 monuments of history and culture. It also contains 10,000 exhibits of painting and sculpture, collections of documents from the 15th-19th centuries, Cossack attributes, letters of deeds from hetmans and Cossack elders. The museum has a large number of halls that characterize a certain era. Among them it is necessary to highlight:
- Ancient history
- Diorama of Ancient Kiev
- Kievian Rus
- Middle Ages
- The era of the Ukrainian Cossacks
- Ukraine under the Russian Empire and Austria
- World War I
- World War II
Currently, a large number of meetings and trainings for schoolchildren are held in the museum. Here, almost every day, evenings are held, interesting meetings on the history of Ukraine. The collection of the museum has been formed over 110 years. The founders of the museum mainly collected archaeological sites. At first, the museum was presented with exhibits of antiquities and arts. The archaeological department, which consisted of one and a half thousand exhibits, became the discoverer of the museum.
Exhibition of ancient history
One of the most interesting exhibits that most visitors like is ancient history. The period is unusual and begins with the first ancestors of the Ukrainians. This is a million years history that includes the period of melting of glaciers and wild animals. This is the transition period from agriculture to the first metal products.
At the beginning of our era, Slavic tribes appeared on the territory of Ukraine, which became our great-grandfathers. From these small groups, tribal unions were formed. It was they who organized the first state of the Eastern Slavs, called Kievian Rus.
Exposition of the late Middle Ages and early Art Nouveau
In the middle of the 16th century, the Ukrainian land was under the rule of the Grand Kingdom of Lithuania. At that time, the legal way of life was preserved in Ukraine. A significant event in this period of time was the spread of the Magdeburg Law. In the 16-18 centuries, the Ukrainian lands were part of the Poland and Moscowia. At this time, the first Cossack autonomy was formed, the settlement of Slobozhanshchina took place, which played the role of a buffer. It was at this time that the national liberation movement took place, led by Bohdan Khmelnytsky, and the power of the church was also spreading.
18th century art was influenced by the Baroque. In the 18th century, the distribution of Ukrainian lands between the Poland and Moscowia took place, which became the impetus for the modernization of education.
In the 19th century, the formation of the Ukrainian modern nation takes place. It was at that time that the first attempts appeared, which tried to make the Ukrainian folk language literary. In the Ukrainian lands, which were under the Russian Empire, the city intelligentsia grew, they were engaged in education, as well as publishing among the illiterate people. However, at that time, ideas of imperial domination were flying in the air, which suppressed the Ukrainian national movement. In the territory, which was under the influence of Austria, the activities of the clergy were spread. It promoted and tried to popularize the ideas of Ukrainian nationalism. The Austrian Empire was more loyal and did not impose restrictions on the work of the clergy. At that time, the first Ukrainian political party was created, founded by I. Franko. The organization promoted national ideas.
Exposition of the First World War
The First World War split the Ukrainian people into two parts, which were forced to fight for hostile countries. Part of Ukraine belonged to the Russian Empire, and the other part to Austria.
After 1917, there were several attempts to build autonomy, as well as an independent Ukrainian state, but they were unsuccessful. Soviet power was established in the Ukrainian territories. During the post-war redistribution period, Ukrainian territories were ruled by Poland, Romania, Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union.
Exposition of the Second World War
From 1939 to 1944, the Second World War swept through the territory of Ukraine, and brought numerous losses of human lives, significant destruction of cities, industry and communications.
In the fall of 1939, the troops of the Soviet Red Army, having previously agreed with Hitler, broke into the territory of Poland - Galicia and Western Belarus. These events marked the beginning of the war in the territories belonging to modern Ukraine.
In the Museum of the History of Ukraine, you can see reliable copies of uniforms, signs, awards, photos, documents and other artifacts from the Second World War.
In 1981, a large museum with a memorial complex was built in Kiev, which is completely dedicated to the Second World War.
After the Second World War in the 60-80s, after the weakening of totalitarianism, a dissident Ukrainian movement emerged, criticizing the policy of the authorities of the Ukrainian SSR. Shortly after the collapse of the Soviet Union as a result of a coup d'état (GKChP putsch) in August 1991, Ukraine became an independent state. Also in the National Museum you can find a diorama of Ancient Kiev. This is the then plan of the city, with the main buildings. It consists of the cities of Vladimir, Izyaslav, Svyatopolk and Yaroslav. On the diorama you can find the Sofievsky, Mikhailovsky and Podolsky gates, the Desyatynna Church.
A visit to the museum promises to be rich and interesting. After the tour, you can relax in the comfortable rooms of the Pearl Hotel, which will surprise you with its good location and homeliness.